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This is a copy of a previous Linkedin Post Dated June 7 2016 which was not present on this Blog.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/opnfv-brahmaputra-systems-integration-nfv-vnfs-lutfullah-kakakhel/

OPNFV Brahmaputra is a Lab ready release of OPNFV. One statement is that community driven Systems Integration really is a hard task to accomplish. This becomes especially true if the systems being integrated to form a larger system are actually multiple large open source projects themselves.

To start with OPNFV aims to integrate systems upon which VNFs can be run.

The caption above is heavy. On the one side there is the requirements generating standards bodies block of organizations which produce specifications and define how the system is to run. On the other side there are the code producing development projects which produce open source projects. OPNFV stands in the middle and intends to integrate these individual code projects according to the requirements laid out by the standard bodied and provide a system on top of which VNFs can be run and tested. The reason this task is being run under an umbrella membership based organization such as OPNFV is because it is a repetitive task which every organization will need to do over and over again as soon as new releases of codes are made available for the individual projects.

It might be difficult to picture this to start with but imagine you want to have a lab ready to run and test VNFs. What is the lab composed of? It will have Infrastructure on top of which VNFs can be run. What is this Infrastructure composed of? This Infrastructure will be composed of hardware and a virtualisation layer and hypervisors and networking projects such as OpenDaylight and Openstack and KVM and Ceph all running together to provide a block of Infrastructure virtual compute network and storage (An NFVI Point of Presence) on which VNFs can be run.

Every organization which wants to reach the level of testing VNFs will need such a lab. And then what happens when a new version of OpenDaylight is released or a new version of Openstack is released or KVM or Ceph? Everybody needs to update their labs. OPNFV is a Linux Foundation project which intends to be the focal point of these activities and perform them jointly instead of everybody doing them individually.

It also helps make the system work. A patch to OpenDaylight could work well within OpenDaylight but could break things at System layer when integrating with the rest of the components which make an NFV lab (to be used to runs VNFs). OPNFV aims to be the first systems layer at which point such patches can be spotlighted and returned to the project they came from informing them that at the system levels things get disjointed.

OPNFV according to its initial white paper aims to make this systems testing environment in line with the NFV Architecture References points of Vi-Ha, Vn-Nf, Nf-Vi, Vi-VNFM & Or-Vi.

After the above is clear the figure below can be understood to be a larger system composed of individual projects integrated together with the aim of running VNFs. In the figure below OpenDaylight is one piece (in network), KVM is another piece (in compute), Openvswitch is another piece and Openstack is also one piece. All these when put together provide the infrastructure to run VNFs. Also to be noted is that in the case of OPNFV there are community labs (Pharos Labs) which provide the hardware.

The presence of this combined effort also means that for Network Operators the differentiation in the market is in Service Orchestration. The Virtual Network Functions and the Network Services run on top of them.

 

References:

http://www.etsi.org/technologies-clusters/technologies/nfv

http://www.slideshare.net/CiscoDevNet/devnet-1162-opnfv-the-foundation-for-running-your-virtual-network-functions

https://www.opnfv.org/brahmaputra

http://www.slideshare.net/OPNFV/opnf-brahmaputra-an-early-look

https://www.opnfv.org/sites/opnfv/files/pages/files/opnfv_whitepaper_092914.pdf

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dh55McgHGQ8

This is a copy of a previous Linkedin Post Dated June 7 2016 which was not present on this Blog.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/nfv-mwc-2016-syed-habib-lutfullah-kakakhel/

ETSI showcased a practical implementation of NFV at the Mobile World Congress 2016. They showed the whole NFV Architecture being implemented and run to provide a SIP voice call. An end to end communication service of a SIP call was made based on a vIMS platform. This vIMS is an NFV VNF orchestrated by a NFV Orchestrator run on top of Infrastructure controlled by an Openstack based VIM. Let’s see the components and how they made the NFV based SIP voice call.

There are two NFVI PoPs (Points of Presence) or two VIMs. One is Openstack controlled and the other is controlled by openvim (part of OpenMano package). Both are controlled by the Open Mano NFVO for resource orchestration. The Service Orchestration is performed by Ubuntu’s Juju.  The launchpad of Rift.io is used as triggering mechanism for resource orchestration and service orchestration. 6wind provides the PEs showcasing corporate VPN interconnectivity. Telefonica provides the traffic generator to test the bandwidth capacity of the PE links and Metaswitch provides the VNF vIMS Clearwater for being run atop the infrastructure.

The figure below shows details:

A multi-site corporation’s network is shown to be running connected via 3 PEs. One site which is connecting to PE 3 has the VNF deployed in VIM2 which is another Data Center. One NFVI PoP labelled VIM 1 is hosting the 6wind PEs while the second NFVI labelled VIM 2 is hosting the VNF. There is interDC communications going on between the two NFVI PoPs. The figure below shows the SIP voice calls communication logical path. The IMS protocols SIP signaling is implemented in VIM 2 in the Metaswitch Clearwater vIMS.

More details can be seen here.

ETSI’s new initiative is delivering an open source NFV Management and Orchestration software stack which is set take away attention from the MANO and turn it into a given piece of software. This puts more focus on the VNFs. The message could be that Service Orchestration using VNFs are therefore to be the focus of attention for Telco organizations.

References:

https://osm.etsi.org/

http://www.etsi.org/technologies-clusters/technologies/nfv

https://networkbuilders.intel.com/docs/E2E-Service-Instantiation-with-Open-Source-MANO.pdf

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JJlxwJStkTk

This is a copy of a previous Linkedin Post Dated June 7 2016 which was not present on this Blog.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/nfv-telco-vepc-solutions-syed-habib-lutfullah-kakakhel/

In telecom networks the option to place an LTE vEPC stands out as an exemplary demonstration of NFV’s application. The figure below gives the generic NFV Architecture. It be divided into 3 main sections:

  1. The Management and Orchestration
    1. Consists of NFV Orchestrator, VNF Manager and Virtualization Infrastructure Manager.
  2. The NFVI – NFV Infrastructure
    1. Consists of Hardware, Virtualization Layer and Compute, Storage, Network Virtualization Software
  3. The VNFs – i.e. the virtual network functions.

The type of function the VNF provides shows what this NFV network delivers. That is if the NFV network delivers as a Network Service an LTE Core end to end communication then there will be EPC functionality implemented and provided by the VNF part of the NFV network.

See the figure below from an ETSI Proof of Concept work.

It shows the vendor CYAN providing NFV Orchestrator (NFVO) and VNF Manager (VNFM). Redhat and Openstack provide the Virtualized Infrastructure Manager (VIM). The figure also shows the relevant Infrastructure hardware and hypervisor software solutions. Finally it shows the VNFs as being Connectem’s vEPC. If the VNF was implementing a different functionality say it was a vIMS then the rest of the components in the figure could be the same and the end to end Network Service being provided by the NFV network would be different. Therefore the function implemented inside the VNF defines what service the NFV network provides. Therefore the work done by the VNF decides whether your NFV network is Telco or Enterprise; LTE or WiMAX; LTE or 3G etc.

For a list of possible Telco VNF’s see the figure below.

Every chuck of functional blocks could be implemented together as a VNF. So what Connectem is doing is implementing the LTE MME, SGW, PGW, HSS, PCRF functionality and packaging it as a VNF which can be run atop virtualized infrastructure. In the ETSI Proof of Concept, Connectems solution therefore does this according the NFV specifications so that the VNF can be managed by a VNFM and its infrastructure is composed so as it can be managed by a VIM and all this can be controlled and coordinated by an NFVO i.e. NFV Orchestrator. Therefore you get an LTE EPC functionality inside the virtualized NFV environment.

The ETSI definition of a VNF is that a VNF is “a Network Function capable of running on NFV Infrastructure (NFVI) and being orchestrated by a NFV Orchestrator (NFVO) and VNF Manager”.

Coming back to our vEPC example the VNF has components. These VNF Components (VNFCs) can logically be pictured as below:

ETSI mandates that a vendor can choose to implement components as they wish inside the VNF environment as long as they speak to the other NFV architecture components as per their defined VNF interfaces. This means that the different components can utilize efficient compute storage and networking procedures instead of the standards body defined communication methodology. An example is that inside the vEPC software the MME will communicate with the SGW but will utilize efficient computational methodology instead of the 3GPP defined interfaces. If for some reason (say a lab environment) a vendor chooses to implement the 3GPP interfaces inside their vEPC it won’t be as fast and as efficient but it can be used to showcase 3GPP communications inside NFV.

Good VNFCs software design is what will distinguish different providers of vEPC software solutions.

References:

http://www.etsi.org/technologies-clusters/technologies/nfv

https://www.opennetworking.org/images/stories/sdn-solution-showcase/germany2015/CENGN%20-%20NFV-based%20LTE%20Core%20in%20the%20Cloud.pdf

http://nfvwiki.etsi.org/images/NFVPER%2814%29000010r2_NFV_ISG_PoC_Proposal-E2E_vEPC_Orchestration.pdf

This is a copy of a previous Linkedin Post Dated May 16 2016 which was not present on this Blog.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/nfv-mano-management-orchestration-syed-habib-lutfullah-kakakhel/

MANO is the brain of the NFV Network. It is the part of the network through which control operations are performed on virtual network functions and virtual network functions infrastructure.

One set of v-eNB, vMME, vSGW, vPGW, vPCRF can be assumed to be a Network Service. Each of the above v’s provide distinct Network Functions which with the v’s are deployed as Virtual Network Functions on Virtual Network Functions Infrastructure. The Virtual Network Functions Infrastructure is hardware with the virtual abstraction layer providing virtualization. These are the acronyms.

Multiple virtual network functions are connected together, or chained together, to provide a network service. The physical links are in the infrastructure which is the compute/storage hardware equipment while the logical links are among the VNFs. The endpoint is the Network Service endpoint which is providing service to the end devices.  Between the physical links and the logical links sits the virtualization layer.

The NFVO i.e. the NFV Orchestrator is the part of the network which controls the deployment and operations of virtual network functions.

This is a copy of a previous Linkedin Post Dated May 24 2016 which was not present on this Blog.

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/nfv-independance-from-hardware-lock-in-lutfullah-kakakhel/

NFV is simple. It’s most simplistic distinction is that it is the Telecom Operators name for hardware independence and software dependence. Hardware is locked in while software is more easily changed (a project manager would say: relative to hardware that is).

We can try to see what problem NFV seeks to solve.

Telecom operators faced a dilemma about hardware. “To launch a new network service often requires yet another variety (of hardware) and finding the space and power to accommodate these boxes is becoming increasingly difficult; compounded by the increasing costs of energy, capital investment challenges and the rarity of skills necessary to design, integrate and operate increasingly complex hardware-based appliances.”

The sentence starts with “to launch a new network service often requires yet another variety” (of hardware). Remember they want to compete with the Whatsapp’s and Viber’s of tomorrow and need agility of deployment.

NFV seeks to provide that ‘Agility of Deployment’ of new network services to Network Operators by taking away dependency on proprietary and vendor locked in hardware. That is the high level purpose.

The rest is architecture. Hardware can be any compute(r) node with associated storage (types) and an accompanied (inter)network of such devices.  Then it follows to make virtual services; Virtual Network Functions with Virtual Network Infrastructure.

To roll out software or new software for a new service is easier than to roll out hardware.

Another primary benefit is elasticity in energy consumption. Energy consumption according to demand. With more control of hardware, which is the energy consuming physical device, via dependence on software this is made possible.

To gain an understanding of components that make up networks we’ll start by stating that a network is a combination of tools working together to provide connectivity to endpoints.

Let’s list the tools.

Network Device (Switch and Router and others) – This is a device which terminates multiple cables into itself with the other end of the cable being other devices. The network device interconnects multiple endpoints via its ports on which cables terminate.

Protocols – These are tools which provide for a coordination mechanism. This coordination mechanism is an exchange of information which makes possible the exchange of traffic.

Protocol Messages – These are messages exchanged between Protocols while they coordinate the laying of the network foundations for exchange of traffic.

Addresses – These come in many flavours and are intended to identify the source and destination of a data payload which is traversing the network.  They can be layered/structured for aggregation and division pools.

Lookup – This is done on the various addresses to find the next hop. Lookup is done to find the next point to which to send the data payload to so that it reaches its ultimate destination after traversing the network.

Appended Information – This is a general term which encompasses information traversing the network which is other than payload and addresses. These are information and tools which are put into packets for protocol operations. This is information inside headers other than the addresses.

Identity Tags – This is a specific class of Appended Information which provides for identity functionality during a lookup and for identification and separation of protocol functions.

Filters & Actions – These are deployed on the network devices to provide intelligent selection and resulting actions over the traversing data payload. They utilize the addresses and appended information inside the data payloads and also the headers.

Network Over Network – This is a general term for a network on top of a network for provision of separate connectivity. A combination another layer of protocols and addresses result in a network over a network.

Network + Network – This is a term identifying the interconnection of 2 or more separate networks resulting in a larger network. Also called internetwork it signifies one domain interconnected to another domain.

Control and Data Plane – Control Plane is the network protocols laying the network foundations and data plane is the traffic traversing the network. Control Plane enables Data Plane.

Network Inside Network Device – This is a term signifying the division of a network device to facilitate a software separation in networks. It creates separate networks inside a network device via operating system software constructs.

We can put brands on these:

OSPF/ISIS/BGP are Protocols to lay the Control Plane for IP addresses

LDP is the Protocol to lay the control plane for MPLS addresses (labels)

MAC Address / IP Address / MPLS Labels are addresses and Lookups are done on them during Data Plane operation

MPLS L2 VPN / MPLS L3 VPN are a Network Over Network function based on labels.

MP-BGP is a protocol to lay Control Plane for Network over Network (MPLS L2VPN & EVPN)

AS to AS BGP connectivity is a Network + Network function

Route Maps / Prefix Lists / AS Path Lists are part of Filters and Actions

OSPF Areas and ISIS Levels are a Network domain + Network domain layering type function

QoS Diffserv and CoS are appended information for actions and functionalities

EVPN, OTV & VXLAN are Network over a Network options. These provide a network over a network Control Plane and network over a network Data Plane.

VXLAN VNID / VLAN TAG / Route Target / Route Distinguishers / BGP Communities are Identity tags for protocol operations where they aid the control plane or data plane.

VDC / VRF / EVPN EVI are Network inside Network Device features primarily being operating system software constructs.

This is a rough approach with much simplification but is intended to view the various network components as tools providing functionality working in unison for connectivity provision. This view aids looking at the components from a Design perspective.

Whether it is a Service Provider, Enterprise or Data Center / Cloud IaaS network the components interact and provide functionality.

Similar trends in multiple industries are apparent.

  • Telecommunications Provider e.g. AT&T
  • Networking/Internet IP,MPLS Service Providers
  • Cloud Native Iaas, PaaS, SaaS industry

Let’s see what the trend is that they have in common:

  • Telecom – AT&T ONAP’s DCAE – Data Collection, Analytics and Events
  • Networking/Internet Service Provider – Cisco/Juniper Telemetry
  • Cloud Native – Kafka and streaming events data from Microservices architectures

What they have in common is events & data production and thereafter streaming of the data and thereafter analytics on these events/data resulting in near real time decision making.

The naming is different, the products are different and the industries are different but the production of data, its streaming and analytics is common.

Telecom industry is moving from PNF (Physical Network Functions) to VNF (Virtual Network Functions). Which is a move from tightly coupled hardware/software devices to a more software driven architecture

The ISP industry is still shifting around IP Packets but they are now looking for more streaming style analytics of their devices and the traffic flows which they are calling Telemetry.

The Cloud Native industry is in the pack with its Microservices based software centric application architectures.

They all have event generation in common and want to process the data and then use it in real time. Real Time Data Streaming and Processing.

Lets now see dig a little deeper and start correlating the terminologies. From the products category we will take Telecom’s ONAP, Networking’s Cisco DNA, Cloud Native’s Prometheus and Kafka and Information Security’s Splunk from the industries to analyse.

ONAPs VNF Event Stream or VES is the stream event producer. ONAPs logging section utilises the same ELK, Elastricsearch Logstash and Kibana dashboarding available in AWS cloud.

Juniper’s Telemetry streaming utilises Google’s Protocol Buffers (gpb) structured messages are relayed to a performance management application. Cisco’s Model Driven Telemetry utilises the same Google Protocol Buffers for streaming data from its devices.

Cloud Native applications are Microservices based which has Event Sourcing and CQRS and are requiring Rabbit MQ/Kafka style message brokers in addition to stream processors and analytics such as the same ELK stack mentioned earlier.

Large organisations such as Linkedin faced the problem of data deluge earlier than the rest of the world in terms of its handling, processing and analytics in real time. This has resulted in products such as Kafka.

 

 

Link:

https://wiki.opnfv.org/display/PROJ/VNF+Event+Stream

https://wiki.onap.org/display/DW/Logging+User+Guide